Russia has started delivering components of its S-400 missiles to Turkey despite harsh opposition from Washington. The US fears that Moscow could gain secret info about the latest US military plane, F-35, if Turkey uses both the S-400 and the fifth-generation jet at the same time. The US has threatened sanctions over the purchase, but Turkey has refused to budge.
The S-400 “Triumph” (known by NATO under the codename SA-21 Growler) is an anti-aircraft missile system which boasts a maximum range of 400 kilometers (248 miles) and can hit targets at the altitude of up to 27 kilometers. It was introduced in 2007. The system is mobile and includes the control hub and several missile launching elements, each of whom comprises of up to 12 launchers. Russia views the system as one of the key elements of its anti-aircraft defense, and its military has also deployed it to Crimea, the Russia’s Kaliningrad enclave, and Syria.
It was made by state-owned arms manufacturer Almaz-Antey, which had been targeted by EU and US sanctions over Russia’s actions in Ukraine. The S-400 was developed to destroy fighter jet, cruise missiles, ballistic missiles, and drones. Russian media claims that S-400 is superior to its French or US-made rivals.
“The Russians and before them the Soviet Union were always leading in missile technology,” UK military expert Richard Connolly at Birmingham University told DW’s Russian service. “The reason for that was that the Americans and the West produced better aircraft.”
S-400 is flexible and can be used with several types of rockets. It also has another major advantage outside the battlefield — it is more affordable. “S-400 is at least twice as cheap as the US system Patriot-2,” Connolly told DW.
Russia says its S-400 system can be ready to deploy in minutes
Signal to US
Turkey reportedly paid $2.5 billion (€2.2 billion) for the Russian system. However, Ankara’s political considerations might have also played a role. For example, the Turkish government might have been motivated by the fact that S-400 has been developed as a countermeasure for American armaments. Connolly notes that during the 2016 coup attempt, Erdogan’s presidential plane was followed by rebel F-16.
Moscow military expert Alexander Golz also believes that buying the Russian-made S-400 was a “purely political decision.” However, Golz believes that it is a “signal to the US and other allies about Turkey sovereign approach to defense.”
Turkey is the second country in the world to get S-400 components delivered from Russia, after China. However, the excitement surrounding the sale to China was somewhat dampened by the incident in late 2017, when the ship delivering the missiles was caught up in the storm, causing some of the rockets tp be damaged. Russia has since replaced them.
India has already signed a $5 billion contract and is awaiting delivery; several Gulf countries have also expressed interest.
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Russia ‘smart enough’ not to use S-400 in Syria
Military experts warn that the S-400, despite its numerous assets, has not yet had its baptism of fire.
“It has not been tested in a real, serious war situation,” Siemon Wezeman of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) told DW. “The only one tested was the US ‘Patriot’ system in 1991, in the Gulf War.”
Russia operates S-400 systems in Syria, where its forces support the regime of Bashar al-Assad. In April 2018, US fired of dozens of Tomahawk missiles against regime forces, but the Russian military refrained from using S-400 as a countermeasure, notes Golz. “The S-400 had the chance to show off its quality during the US Tomahawk strikes on Syria, but the Russian authorities were smart enough not to attempt it.”
Turkey wants to make parts for S-400
The predecessors of the cutting-edge S-400 device, including Soviet-made S-300s, were designed to as a part of a comprehensive, nationwide anti-aircraft system. The S-400s have the advantage of being able to operate independently — precisely the feature that allows Turkey to use it without integrating it with NATO’s defense network.
However, incorporating S-400 in a wider defensive complex would make it brings major advantages, and make it “much more effective,” Siemon Wezeman says.
For example, the Russian army is protecting S-400 from enemy airstrikes with an additional medium-range defense system, the Pantsir S-1. It is still unclear if Turkey will also buy this system from Russia.
The 30-round AK 47 is arguably the most recognizable firearm in the world. The Soviet engineer Mikhail Kalashnikov (pictured above in 2002) created the automatic rifle after World War II. It quickly earned a reputation for being cheap and reliable, with various armies, guerilla groups and street gangs all using the weapon to this day.
The 9mm Makarov pistol entered service in 1951 as a staple sidearm for the Soviet army, police and Spetsnaz special forces. Soviet cosmonauts even took the weapon to space as a part of a special survival kit, which was provided to them in case they become stranded upon landing back on Earth.
The Mikoyan MiG-29 first entered production in the early 1980s, and was praised as a highly maneuverable and agile dogfighter. The original model has since been upstaged by both NATO fighters and its more expensive brother Sukhoi, but its variants are still deployed in combat. The Russian air force uses MiG-29s to target the so-called “Islamic State” forces in Syria.
The Red Army used Katyushas to devastating effect against German soldiers in World War II. The multiple rocket launchers were attached to army trucks, making them cheap and highly mobile. Its distinctive whine and appearance reminded the German soldiers of a church organ, prompting a nickname “Stalinorgel” or “Stalin’s organ.”
In 2016, Russia sold its advanced aerial defense system to Iran, but kept quiet on the details. The Cold War-era version of the S-300 had a range of 150 kilometers (93 miles), and could hit targets at altitudes above 27 kilometers, with the more modern Antey 2500 system reportedly expanding the range to 400 kilometers. India and China are seeking to buy the even-more-advanced S-400 missiles.
The Dragunov sniper rifle was first introduced to the Soviet army in 1963 and has since found its way to war theaters across the world. It was reportedly used against US soldiers in Vietnam. In 2015, the SITE Intelligence Group published photos of the “Islamic State” soldiers with Dragunov rifles.
The Red Army owes much of its victory over Germany to the iconic T-34, which first appeared on the battlefield in 1941. The battle-tested T-34 eventually became the most widely produced tank of the war and influenced armored vehicles for decades. The Russian military still honors it by having it lead the Victory Day parade.
Next generation systems coming up
Still, Turkey is expecting to gain access to at least some of Russian technology. Several S-400 components are supposedly to be produced on Turkish soil.
“This might be symbolic,” Golz told DW. “Three nuts and two bolts would be produced on Turkish territory.”
According to unconfirmed information from Russian sources, Russia has rejected Turkey’s request for electronic codes and settings of S-400, including its “friend-or-foe” recognition system.
S-400 is considered cutting-edge, but it will not stay that way for long. Russian weapons manufacturers are close to completing the S-500 system, dubbed “Prometheus,” which is expected to be revealed in 2020. In June 2019, Russian Trade Minister Denis Manturov said that its already fit for mass production. Official data says S-500 would have an even larger range, allowing it shoot down low-orbiting satellites. Turkey is also willing to manufacture the system jointly with Russia.